Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Most people think of only middle-aged and old people of being affected by heart diseases. But nowadays because of the sedentary lifestyle, individuals from any age group are likely to develop cardiac diseases. They have become one of the largest causes of death worldwide. Age, gender, high blood pressure, high serum cholesterol levels, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history, obesity, lack of physical activity and diabetes are the risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular diseases.
Practicing healthy living habits at the early age such as following a routine exercise schedule, going for a brisk walk, refraining from smoking and alcohol consumption, having a healthy diet, keeping cholesterol levels low and maintaining a correct weight would greatly diminish the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
In general, heart diseases are related to a process called atherosclerosis, a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries due to high cholesterol levels. It narrows the diameter of the artery and obstructs the flow of blood. If there is a clot in the artery, it blocks the blood flow and results in a heart attack or stroke. Some of the other cardiac disorders are heart failure (failure of heart to pump enough blood to the body), arrhythmia (abnormal rhythm of heart), heart valve problems, etc.
With advances in medical science, today most of the heart diseases are easier to detect and eventually treat. A marked reduction in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases has been observed in the past few years.
- Apolipoprotein A
- Apolipoprotein B
- C-Reactive Protein
- High-density Lipoprotein (HDL)
- Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL)